The U.S. Supreme Court held, in a landmark decision, that the Constitution requires a state to license marriages between same-sex couples. This ruling to legalize same-sex marriage in all 50 states has far-reaching consequences, including a number of important tax issues. Same-sex couples who are married in any state will now be able to file joint state tax returns, inherit property more easily, and receive Social Security and veterans’ spousal benefits. For federal tax purposes, legally married gay couples have been able to file joint income tax returns, elect to split gifts for gift tax, and claim the marital deduction for estate tax since the Supreme Court’s 2013 ruling in Windsor. However, some states required same-sex couples to file separate state income tax returns, regardless of whether they were legally married in another state. [ Editor’s Note: Same-sex married couples should be able to amend their returns and file jointly to claim a refund (if entitled to one) for tax years that are still open.] Other areas likely to be impacted by this ruling include health and medical benefits. Obergefell v. Hodges, 115 AFTR 2d 2015-XXXX (Sup. Ct. 2015).